Migration to Yucatan increasing as unemployment climbs in Campeche, Tabasco and Veracruz
Hundreds of people from Campeche and Tabasco are moving to live in Yucatan, as a result of growing unemployment in the oil industry of these states, warns Rubén Cáceres Arzápalo, a sociologist at the Colegio de la Frontera Sur.
The official figures are still scarce and preliminary, he says, but there is data showing that this new migration flow in the Southeast attracts, on the one hand, people over 50, who work in Yucatan as investors or professionals. On the other hand, the unemployed sector of those states with little education or job skills are being incorporated into the informal economy.
The crisis in the oil industry in the states of the Gulf of Mexico has resulted in the unemployment of 16,800 people in Tabasco, 9,736 in Campeche and 13,500 in Veracruz, according to recent figures from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (Inegi), said Cáceres Arzápalo.
But if we take into account the figures from the last four years, from 2012 to 2016, unemployment has hit harder in Campeche, whose official unemployment rate in that period went from 2.09 in 2012 to 3.97 percent in 2016.
In Tabasco the jobless rate went from 5.74 to 7.61% and in Veracruz from 2.50 to 3.51%.
The researcher said the unemployment related to the oil industry comes from the decrease in Pemex positions in the last 18 months — more than 10,000 — and especially of the layoffs registered among the contractor companies of Pemex, which lost hundreds of contracts.
Many of these companies are located in Ciudad del Carmen and Villahermosa, but also in Coatzacoalcos, Minatitlán, Poza Rica, Tampico and Ciudad Madero.
In the specific case of Campeche, explains Caceres Arzápalo, expert in Demography, this situation has led to a net migration rate in the last four years of 4.4%, the fifth highest in the country, according to the National Population Council (Conapo).
This rate includes many Tabasqueños settled in Campeche for years.
According to the specialist, studies of Conapo recorded a silent migration to Yucatan in the period from 2010 to 2015, people aged 50 to 64 from the Valley of Mexico, Cancun and Aguascalientes, but above all from Ciudad del Carmen and Villahermosa driven, not by unemployment, but by insecurity in those places.
The National Council of Population estimates that emigration at 1,846 people, many of them with economic resources.
However, adds Cáceres Arzápalo, in the last two years there has been an increase in the migratory flow of people from Campeche and Tabasco with little school and work education, who arrive in Mérida and conurbated municipalities and who join the informal economy, “although still we do not have information to specify their number “.
By the way, adds the researcher, in recent years there has been detected an increasingly strong migratory flow relatively from Quintana Roo to Yucatan, as well as many Yucatecans and people from other parts of the country, who have lived for years in Yucatan, coming to live in Merida.